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    德州大学安德森癌症中心,位于德克萨斯州休士顿,创建于1941年。属德克萨...


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MD安德森癌症中心研究是如何帮助患者的-搜狐

发布于:2016-06-14 11:49:36来源:搜狐 作者:admin


 

  作者:Lori Baker,MD

  MD安德森癌症中心有近2000名癌症专科医生。每年诊治数千名患者,是的这就是我们的至关重要的使命。

  “我们的使命是终结癌症,而不仅仅是提供卓越的治疗,”科学院副院长Helen Piwnica-Worms博士说。“我们的知识也许还不够,因此我们的全体员工必须要是一个充满活力的研究团队,这些团队的研究人员必须运用他们的科学专长来回答重要的生物学问题。”

  根据Piwnica-Worms所言,传递我们的承诺—去发现问题的答案—是我们与众不同的承诺。

  “发现新事物是与突破制度不同的“Piwnica-worms说。

  新的癌症治疗方法的诞生地
 

  基础研究也被称为实验室研究和发现科学,是MD安德森癌症中心“基因“的一部分。终结安正需要拖入大量的时间、精力、金钱给予这种类型的研究,当然也需要进行临床研究、转化研究、人口科学研究。大量今日治疗手段的存在是因为昨天寄出研究的结果。例如,许多患晚期胰腺癌的患者依赖药物吉西他滨(gemcitabine),之所以人们能够获得该药,要很大程度上归功于实验治疗学教授William Plunkett博士领导的基础研究。

  Plunkett’s的对于该药物新陈代新、作用机制和临床药理学发现使得该药的使用的固定剂量有了理论基础。他的工作对我们临床医生实施的临床试验进行了补充。

  因此,1996年吉西他滨(gemcitabine)成为美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)批准的第一个胰腺癌治疗药物。

  科学研究就此停滞于此了么,只有胰腺癌患者能够从中获益么吗。由于后续的研究,吉西他滨(gemcitabine)已经陆续被美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)批准为治疗肺癌、乳腺癌、卵巢癌的等种类的癌症用药。进行中的研究正在试验,这种药物能否被用于更多类型癌症的治疗。

  一个发现是建立在另一个发现的基础之上的
 

  世界上白血病患者也从Plunkett的发现中获益—许多患者通过参加白血病科教授Michael Keating博士的主持的临床试验获益。Michael Keating博士也是慢性淋巴细胞型白血病“登月旅行“的协同领导。对于那些罹患急性骨髓性白血病的患者,他证实降低阿糖胞苷药物的剂量,会使得治疗更加有效,同时对病人的毒性更加低。
 

  Plunkett的发现了氟达拉滨(fludarabine)在体内是如何起作用的,并对慢性淋巴细胞白血病病人进行试验。氟达拉滨(fludarabine)表现出更加有效的应答和更长时间的生存受益,当时被认为是最好的治疗药物。

  但是研究工作不能就此停止。更多的实验室工作就氟达拉滨(fludarabine)联合环磷酰胺(cyclophosphamide)的使用进行研究,这种联用是患者更加受益。这种联用已经成为世界范围内治疗的标准方案。
 

  “当我们实验室工作使患者受益是,我们觉得我们的工作是非常值得的,”Piwnica-worms从她的个人经验出发指出。她对于细胞周期检查点(为保证细胞周期中DNA复制和染色体分配质量的负反馈调节机制)的一些开创性的发现,已经被转化为癌症患者新的治疗机会,特别是对那些三阴性乳腺癌、卵巢癌、头颈癌的患者。
 

  “我们必须持续支持新的探索和发现,”Piwnica-Worms宣称。“当我还在进行住院医培训师,我就对癌细胞自身的行为非常感兴趣,但通过持续的基础研究,我们现在认识到把癌症作为一个器官进行来考虑,研究癌细胞所处的微环境是至关重要的。”
 

  我们现在能做的事情—诸如全部基因组序列测定—是一个30年前不可想象的想法,Piwnica-Worms说。

  “随着当今社会的脚步,我们不能透彻理解30年后我们在做什么。我们必须继续充分利用新技术和刚刚产生的机遇。”

  更长版本的这个故事来自“信使”—MD安德森癌症中心为雇员出版的双月出版物

  内容提要:MD安德森癌症中心的药物试验是如何帮助患者的。
 

  本文来源于美国MD安德森癌症中心官方网站,作者:美国MD安德森癌症中心Lori Baker,M.D.,由全球肿瘤医生—环宇达康医疗编译,转载必须注明出处!未注明出处转载,全球肿瘤医生—环宇达康医疗保留追究法律责任的权利!
 

  

  英文原文:

  How our research helps cancer patients

  By Lori Baker

  MD Anderson has close to 2,000 doctors. Several hundred never treat patients, yet they are crucial to our mission.

  "Our mission is to end cancer, not just provide excellent care," says Helen Piwnica-Worms, Ph.D., vice provost of Science. "We don't yet know enough, so our faculty must include a robust community of researchers who apply their scientific expertise to answer important biological questions."

  According to Piwnica-Worms, delivering on our commitment to finding answers sets us apart.

  "Discovery is what distinguishes breakthrough institutions," Piwnica- Worms says.

  Birthplace of new cancer treatments

  Basic research, also referred to as laboratory research and discovery science, is a part of MD Anderson's DNA. Ending cancer requires investments in this type of research, as well as clinical, translational and population sciences research. Many of today's treatments exist because of yesterday's basic research. For example, many patients with advancedpancreatic cancerrely on the druggemcitabine, which is available to them thanks in large part to basic research conducted byWilliam Plunkett, Ph.D., professor in Experimental Therapeutics.

  Plunkett's discoveries of the metabolism, mechanism of action and clinical pharmacology of the drug led to the rationale for fixed-dose-rate infusion. His work complemented trials conducted by our clinical doctors.

  As a result, in 1996,gemcitabinewas the first drug for pancreatic cancer approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  Had the science stopped there, only pancreatic cancer patients would have benefited. Thanks to continued research, the drug has since been FDA-approved to treat forms of lung, breast and ovarian cancers. Ongoing research has led to its testing as a treatment in even more cancers.

  One discovery builds on another

  Leukemia patients around the world also have benefited from Plunkett's discoveries, many of which were made available to patients through collaborations withMichael Keating, M.D., professor in Leukemia, and co-leader of theChronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Moon Shot. For those withacute myeloid leukemia, he demonstrated that lowering the dose of the drug cytarabine was just as effective and less toxic to patients.

  Plunkett's discoveries of how the drug fludarabine worked in the body led to testing it for patients with CLL. The drug prompted a more effective response and survival benefit over what was considered the best treatment at that time.

  But the research didn't stop there. Further laboratory work led to combining fludarabine with the drug cyclophosphamide, which proved to be even more beneficial to patients. The combination became the new standard of care worldwide.

  "It's very rewarding when your laboratory work leads to benefits for patients," notes Piwnica-Worms, who speaks from personal experience. Her pioneering discoveries in cell cycle checkpoints have been translated into new therapeutic opportunities for cancer patients, particularly for those with triple-negative breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and head and neck cancer.

  "We must continue to support discovery science," Piwnica-Worms states. "When I was in training, the field focused on the cancer cell itself, but through continued basic research, we now recognize that it's critical to think of cancer as an organ and to study the cancer cell in the context of its surrounding microenvironment."

  We can do things now -- like sequencing whole genomes -- that weren't even ideas 30 years ago, Piwnica-Worms says.

  "With the pace of science today, we can't even fathom what we'll be working on 30 years from now. We must continue to position ourselves to capitalize on new technologies and opportunities as they arise."

  A longer version of this story originally appeared in Messenger, MD Anderson's bimonthly publication for employees.

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